Causes of low back pain, methods of diagnosis and treatment

Low back pain is a common symptom present in 80% of the population. Painful sensations in the lumbar region appear with physical damage to this part of the body or the progression of the disease. You cannot ignore the pain. It is one of the first symptoms of serious back problems. If you experience pain in the lumbar region, you should contact a medical institution. The clinic doctor will diagnose and work out the optimal treatment.

lower back pain

Causes of back pain

Painful sensations develop when exposed to the following factors:

  • injury to the nerve roots leaving the spine in the lumbar region;
  • hernia in the lumbar spine;
  • altered posture;
  • lower back sciatica;
  • ankylosing spondylitis;
  • genetic changes, for example, different lengths of the lower limbs;
  • osteochondrosis of the intervertebral type;
  • diseases of the renal system;
  • malignant neoplasm;
  • altered metabolism;
  • arthritis;
  • inflammation around the blood vessel;
  • atherosclerotic lesion of vascular ducts grade 3 and above;
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • complication after surgery;
  • appendicitis, the pain syndrome is localized in the right iliac region, can be administered from the right side of the lower back;
  • inflammatory process of the pancreas;
  • Overweight;
  • diseases of bone tissue of an infectious nature, characterized by sharp painful sensations in the lumbar region.

In women, the following causes of back pain in the lumbar region are distinguished:

  • the process of bearing a child;
  • adnexitis, characterized by pain in the lower abdomen, which radiates to the lumbar region.
  • Men also have specific causes of painful sensations:
  • inflammatory process of the prostate;
  • epididymitis, localized in the groin area, the pain can spread to the lumbar spine and lower limbs.

Types of back pain

There are several types of pain syndrome, depending on its duration:

Recurrent back pain

The discomfort and pain disappear after the lesion is removed and the patient has fully recovered. Pain in the kidney area develops with excessive physical exertion. Periodic painful sensations progress in the acute form of diseases of internal organs.

Persistent back pain

Common causes of persistent pain:

  • disturbances in the work of the circulatory system of the lower extremities;
  • dystrophic process of bone tissue and cartilage;
  • inflammatory diseases of the spine and bones.

Less often, the permanent nature of pain sensations occurs when the muscle tissue and internal organs are injured, which is explained by the appearance of a dystrophic process. Modern medicine is unable to completely stop the destruction of bone tissue.

Diagnostic methods

Before prescribing drugs and other procedures, doctors make diagnoses. The history is taken, the nature and location of painful sensations are taken into account. Diagnosis involves the passage of an ultrasound of the abdominal organs, an X-ray of the spine, endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract, carrying out biochemical analyzes of blood cells and urine. If the lower back hurts and the doctor suspects that a malignant tumor is developing, the blood is examined for tumor markers.

In clinics, the following methods are used to accurately identify the causes of back pain:

Which doctor to contact

At the first signs of pain, make an appointment with an orthopedist or neurologist. The doctor will listen to complaints, examine them, send them for examination. Diagnose and prescribe effective treatment.

Lower back pain treatment

After passing the diagnosis, the doctor draws up a treatment plan, which is complex in nature. Prescribed drugs, physiotherapy procedures. If possible, manual therapy is used. With the severe development of the disease that caused pain in the lumbar region, surgical intervention is prescribed. Depending on the severity of the painful sensations, physical education may be prescribed or prohibited. With sharp sharp pain, the load is contraindicated.

Clinically, the following techniques are used to treat low back pain:


Without treatment for back pain and the cause of the symptom, a number of complications develop:

  • painful sensations spread further, healthy tissue is affected;
  • the work of the heart and vascular system deteriorates;
  • in severe cases, paralysis of the upper and lower limbs is possible.

Prevention of back pain

To avoid the development of painful sensations in the lumbar region, the following recommendations should be followed:

  • for sleeping use a mattress of medium hardness;
  • in case of sedentary work, do lumbar gymnastics once an hour;
  • avoid sudden movements of the body;
  • renounce the use of alcoholic beverages, tobacco, narcotics;
  • daily physical education;
  • avoid hypothermia of the lumbar region;
  • sleep in the right posture;
  • adhere to a balanced diet;
  • posture of control;
  • avoid stressful situations;
  • timely treat inflammatory and infectious diseases;
  • in case of painful sensations in the lumbar region, contact a medical institution for advice;
  • undergo timely preventive examinations to detect diseases of the lumbar spine.