Formation of a correct posture in children largely depends on the environment. The duties of the parents and staff of preschool and school institutions is included to guard the proper position of children in standing, sitting and walking, and also use exercises that they support, primarily the muscles of the back, legs and abdomen. There is a need to in a child develops the natural muscular corset.
About the spine and its changes
The spine (backbone) is an essential part of the axial skeleton of man and consists of 33-34 vertebrae, which are connected between each of the ligaments and joints.
In the womb a child's spine looks like a single arc. When the child appears light, his spine straightens, and acquires the appearance in almost a straight line. Exactly from the moment of birth begins to form posture. In the presence of skill hold the head in a raised condition, in the cervical region of the spine, the child gradually creates bending forward, the so-called cervical лордоз. If the time has come, when the child already knows how to sit, in the thoracic area of her spine also formed, bending, only reversed back (кифоз). And when the child begins to walk, in the area of the lumbar with time is formed by bending with a bump, which in the forward direction. Is it lumbar лордоз. This is the reason why it is important to monitor the next proper formation of the children's posture.
About осанке and its violation
Posture referred to as the ability of a person to keep their body in different positions. Is it correct and incorrect.
Posture is considered correct, if it is fine and worthwhile person when in familiar for him to posture, does not make unnecessary active tension and keeps your head and body straight. In addition, it has a light gait, slightly drooping eye and dedicated back the shoulders, the aim of which is forward on the chest, trim stomach and legs, right into your lap.
When incorrect осанке person doesn't know how to properly hold your body, so, as usually stands and moves on the floor-согнутых legs, drooping shoulders and head, as well as putting forward the abdomen. In such осанке disturbed the normal functioning of internal organs.
Various disorders of posture, whether it's a stoop, лордоз, кифоз or scoliosis (lateral curvature of the spine) – quite common in children of preschool and school age. In essence, that children are either physically weak, or suffering from some chronic disease, either already who are rooting hard for the disease in early childhood.
Prevention of disorders of posture
Prevention of all disorders related to posture, should be comprehensive and be based on submitted by the below principles.
Constantly evolving organism of the child during the entire growth needs of useful nutrient. Food should be rich and varied, because it depends on how it is correct will be the development of muscles and bones.
Very important for the health of children's posture lesson exercise, different kinds of sports (especially skiing and swimming), gymnastics, as well as tourism, active play in the fresh air, etc. it is Necessary to take into account that when physical development is not necessary to force the child to perform sharp and quick to load.
Correct mode of the day.
To avoid problems with posture, it is necessary not only to ensure the correct mode of the day (time, walks, sleep, wakefulness, food, etc.), but also strictly in accordance with his, so no exceptions, for example on weekends.
The children's room.
- The room should have good lighting. Next table lamp must be equipped with a children's desk.
- The height of the table should match the growth of the child. There are even special tables that are designed for the correction of the posture of the student.
- The chair must repeat the curves of the body. The truth is, that instead of this ортопедического chair can be closed for back pain is the lumbar pillow in addition to the usual chair. The height of the chair in the ideal case should be equal to the height of the calf. Use the bracket for the legs, if they are not достают into the floor.
- The child should sit so that the back of her leaned back in his chair, while the head is slightly наклонялась forward, and between the body and the desk, easily held the palm rib. If sits can not clean your feet under yourself, as this can lead to искривлению of the spine and disorders of blood circulation.
- The child's bed should be smooth and firm mattresses. Thanks to this type of the body weight of the child evenly, and muscles of the maximum release after the vertical position of the torso for the whole day. Don't let the child sleeps on a soft surface. It provokes the emergence of bad bends the spine during sleep. In addition, the soft mattress stimulates согревание of the intervertebral disc, because of which is disturbed by the thermo-регуляция. As for children's pillows, it must be flat and placed exclusively under the head, not under your shoulders.
A competent shoe repair.
Correct, accurate and timely selection of children's shoes allows parents to prevent, and even eliminate many of the problems, such as functional shortening of the limb, which, by reason of the disturbance of posture or compensation for the defects of feet (clubfoot deformity was and flat feet).
Uniform distribution of the load.
It is known that the most frequently at school age, when in children it is observed the rapid growth of bone and muscle mass, are, unfortunately, gaining curvature of the spine. This happens due to the fact that in this age, the child's spine is not adapted to greater stress. Parents should try to not to overload the child while wearing them ранца, backpack or briefcase. Remember that in the standard weight which is allowed to lift the baby, is 10% of the total body weight.
The back of the school ранца must be flat and solid, its width should not be longer than the width of the shoulders. Also the bag should not hang below the belt and straps on it should be soft and wide, is governed by the length of the. Unacceptably long period of time carrying heavy bags on one of the shoulders, which is especially true for girls. In this case, the curvature of the spine for them can become an inevitable problem.
In terms of the correct transfer of weight, it is known that the bend to the severity and increase it – it is a huge burden on the spine, and so it cannot be. Right would be first to squat with a straight back, then you take it, press chest, climb and attributed. And as advice to parents: even if you yourself follow this rule, and teach it to your child.
Formation of a correct posture
To stimulate growth and develop the muscles of a child, you can safely start from his birth. So their growth and strength, will be faster to develop. For infants a great helper in this is the massage (doctor's prescription).
A child at the age of 2-3 months, you can start to do exercises to workout the muscle groups that are responsible for the imprisonment of the body in the correct position. For this sufficient, will help the hands to pick up the child, переведя from position "lying" to the position "up", after which long to hold her weight. In this position the muscles and joints of the child will move, the coaching in this case all the muscle groups.
After 1.5 years in a playful way with your child, it is possible to start practicing gymnastics. Together you can "chop the wood", "cat" dish out the back, "pumping water", go on the drawn line like a tightrope, ride on the floor, run the obstacle course, and so sp is Possible to ask a child to portray птичку: lie down on your stomach, "spread your wings" (release hands to side) and hold the ankle of the foot.
The child's posture formed up to the period of puberty. The whole time it is necessary to monitor its formation. If the child has already experienced some violations, until the beginning of this period it can be corrected. The child must regularly visit the doctor-an orthopedist, when he in his accounts, and browse all available types of treatment. It can be a therapeutic exercise, swimming, massage, physiotherapy, мануальная therapy and surgical treatment (according to testimony).
A useful exercise
For the formation of correct posture in children and also the prevention of its disorders in the process of teaching a morning gymnastics, physical culture and during such moments in domestic conditions, mainly in preschool and school establishments, you can use a variety of useful exercises. Below are examples of such exercises.
- A child standing on one leg or walking a бревну.
- Holding behind the back of the hoop, the child makes the sails to the sides.
- Holding a stick in his hand, the child is crouching, standing on tiptoe feet.
- Разведя arms to the side, the child makes the sail back.
- The fact that legs apart and holding in his hand a staff, the child, прогнувшись, makes the sails forward.
- The baby lifts the legs up, lying down on his back.
- Baby crawling on all fours.
- The child, maintaining proper posture, walking, keep some load on the head.
- Hands down the child holds the pole for the end and lifts the hands up, заводя stick behind his back, after which the alternative sails left and right.
- Using the horizontal bar or the Swedish wall, the child, tightly and while hugging her hands to the rungs, сгибает legs at a right angle and is in this position for a few seconds.
- Be in position "feet together, hands omit", the child sees right foot back and her arms threw up into the party and freezes, after which repeats the exercise with the left leg.
- Lying on your back, the baby is with the help of the feet", rotates the pedal" or depicts the "scissors".
- Lying on his stomach, the child приподнимает bent at the knees legs, обхватывает ankles with his hands and begins to fidget as лодочка on the waves.
- Standing in front of the mirror, the child, alternately, first breaks, and then corrects your posture.
- The child becomes on the wall of the five points (the back of the head, shoulder blades, buttocks, calves and heels). These points are the main curves of our body out and is in the standard must come into contact with the wall. Then performs various movements, for example, squats or breeding of the legs and arms to the sides, straining the muscles in an average of 5 seconds.
Dear parents, to commemorate and talk about the baby to "Sit up straight" of course, that it is necessary, but it is still not enough. Start to worry about the health of their children even "diapers" and be sure to make time for exercise with them. An important moment in the formation of the correct posture of the child is a personal example. To exercise together with the child, keep your back straight and be healthy!