Back pain — a symptom of the disease, most commonly, the muscles of the back and spine. In this article we will understand why the back hurts.
The problem in the lower back can be due to diseases of the bone tissue of the spine, the lumbar discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the discs of the spine, spinal cord and nerves, muscles, lower back, internal organs of small pelvis and abdominal cavity, as well as the skin that covers the lumbar region. The upper part of the back may ache due to diseases of the aorta, breast tumors or inflammation of the spine.
Sudden arisen short pain in the lower back pain is also called lumbago, and gradually developed chronic — lumbalgie. If the pain of the lower back (the coccyx) - coccygodynia.
Causes of pain in the back
In most cases your back hurts due to muscular-skeletal abnormalities (microdamages of the ligaments and joints of the spine after the big load on them, stretching or spasm of the muscles). Somewhat less often the cause of pain are more expressed changes from the side of the spine, such as herniated intervertebral discs or displacement of the vertebrae (spondilolistezom). Finally, in rare cases, back pain may be associated with severe disease (tumors and inflammatory processes in the spine and spinal cord, diseases of internal organs — kidney, heart, pancreas, pelvic, and others).
Possible causes of back pain
- Muscle cramps;
- Sprains (injury to a ligament );
- Muscle injuries;
- Bleeding in the pelvis;
- Dissection of the aorta;
- Infection of the spine and pelvis;
- Lumbar spinal stenosis;
- Metastases in the spine (cancer that has spread to your spine from other organs);
- Viral infections, including influenza.
Diseases in which the back hurts
- Aneurysm of the abdominal aorta;
- Ankylosing spondylitis;
- Bone cancer;
- A degenerative disease of the spinal discs;
- Diffuse idiopathic the skeleton on the hyperostosis;
- Kidney stones;
- Paget's disease;
- Pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer (surrounding pain);
- Psoriatic arthritis;
- Reactive arthritis;
- Shingles (pain and a characteristic rash on the skin).
Than dangerous back pain
Usually, back pain is persistent, aggravated by movement and physical exertion, and are accompanied by limitation of motion in the spine and the feeling of stiffness in the back. In most cases, it is typical relapsing course, in which episodes of exacerbations, usually provoke intense physical stress, a long finding in an inconvenient position, or hypothermia, changes more or less long periods, during which pain is absent or are expressed at least.
In the vast majority of cases of back pain do not pose a direct threat to the life and health of a person and often take place alone (without treatment). However, sometimes back pain can be caused by serious diseases of the spine or internal organs.
Below are the features of pain in the back, which may be associated with severe pathology. In the presence of any of these symptoms, you must immediately seek medical help, and in any case not engage in self-medicate.
- Back pain is constant and localized in one place.
- Pain in the back is reduced in a reclined position, or arises in the night.
- Back pain is accompanied by an increase in body temperature.
- Back pain is accompanied by muscle tension in the limbs, or in combination with the long stiffness in the morning.
Diagnosis of pain in the back
- Check a neurologist to assess the condition of the nervous system, muscles, the spine.
- The general analysis of blood and urine to the exclusion of the inflammatory process in the kidneys.
- Radiography of the spine to exclude osteomyelitis, fractures and other diseases. For the record identified by the x-ray changes in addition, your doctor may assign a computer or magnetic resonance imaging ct scan of the spine (the first allows you to thoroughly evaluate the condition of the bone structures, the second — the spinal cord and the intervertebral disc).
Very often when these studies are expressed dystrophic changes in the intervertebral discs and bodies of vertebrae, and is diagnosed with "osteochondrosis". It should be noted that the osteochondrosis in itself is not a disease, but reflects the age-related changes of the spine. You, or any other changes from the side of the intervertebral disc (including hernia) express almost all the people of mature age, including even never experienced pain in the back. In other words, the identification of the symptoms of degenerative disc disease on x-ray or disc herniation in magnetic resonance imaging still does not give reason to believe that back pain is associated with them (such a decision may take only a doctor on the basis of the results of the clinical examination).
Treatment of back pain
Fully cured of back pain often fail, but it is possible to minimize the frequency of exacerbations using the correct lifestyle and drug therapy. Treatment of back pain depends on the cause, making their appearance. Choose the course of treatment, suits You, can only physician.
Effect of therapeutic activities can manifest itself not now, you need patience and exposure. The main aim of treatment lies not only in the elimination of acute pain, but also in the prevention of exacerbations of the disease in the future.
How to get rid of back pain
Bed rest can contribute to the transition of acute back pain in chronic. With regard to the while mild pain is to be in bed mode, and when the intense pain of the head should be a maximum limit to its duration (1-3 days).
If the back hurts, it is necessary to limit to this moment of physical activity, and in particular avoid lifting of heavy weights and a longer stay in one position; the important thing is to correctly perform the movements, without increasing the burden on the spine.
For unloading of the spine and provide him a state of calm it is advisable to use a special belt or corset.
Medications from back pain
Treatment depends on the cause of the back pain and it is determined by the doctor after the examination.
For the relief of pain used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory means produced in the form of tablets, ampoules forms for injection, creams and gels and analgesics or combination medications. Medication of both groups prescribe a short course (usually no more than 3-5 days). In addition, for the removal of pain, apply compresses with a solution of local anesthetic and medical blockade (which can be carried out only by a doctor).
For headaches associated with muscle tension, used drugs, which resolves the spasm (muscle relaxants central action — in the course of 1-2 weeks). Taking the above drugs is possible only on prescription.
Currently, for the treatment of back pain associated with dystrophic changes of the spine (osteochondrosis), offer to use special drugs — medicinal products, stimulates the production of the main components of cartilage and inhibiting its destruction. The effectiveness of these drugs in diseases of the spine is not shown, the same can be said for many of the widely advertised supplements (usually containing medicinal plants, biological materials, vitamins, etc.) and homeopathic remedies. Despite the fact that all of the above means of free medicines in pharmacies without a prescription should not be taken without prior consultation with the doctor.
Physiotherapy and exercise therapy in back pain
To reduce the severity of pain can be applied dry heat (but not deep warming) and other rehabilitation procedures, but only after consultation with your doctor.
After the end of the acute period of the useful lesson of exercise therapy in special complexes (strengthening the muscles of the back, abdominal muscles) and massage.
Manual therapy in back pain
Manual therapy can appoint only a doctor, after performing an x-ray and/or magnetic resonance, which allow to objectively assess the condition of the spine and surrounding tissues. With proper implementation of manual therapy (impact on the joints, spine, ligaments and muscles) allows you to edit many of the local disturbances (e.g., muscle tension, subluxations of joints), that sometimes allows you to quickly and effectively eliminate back pain.
Manual therapy has contraindications and limitations:
- When a hernia or destruction of intervertebral disc (displacement of the fragments may lead to compression of the spinal cord, spinal roots and blood vessels).
- After suffering a myocardial infarction, stroke, oncological diseases, tuberculosis of the spine, disruption of the function of the endocrine system, when expressed osteoporosis.
- When expressed focus, accompanied by a sudden limitation of motion of the spine because of the pain and tension of the muscles of the back (may increase symptoms).
- In diseases of the blood vessels and disorders of the coagulation blood system.
In the poor implementation of manual therapy may lead to severe complications, and therefore it must be performed only by a qualified expert (a doctor of the relevant specialty). It is absolutely unacceptable to carry out manual therapy of medium-sized health care providers and persons without medical education!
Acupuncture (acupuncture) often has a positive effect in mild pain in the back, especially due to muscular tension and combined with the emotional disorders. Although, according to the ideas of traditional chinese medicine, acupuncture can be used in all diseases, it is widely known that acupuncture is contraindicated in the following cases.
- In diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
- In the presence of benign and malignant tumors (including in the past).
- In diseases that require urgent surgical intervention.
- In disorders of the renal and hepatic function.
- In the presence of a tendency to bleeding or use of drugs that violate the blood to clot.
- In acute infectious diseases.
- When pregnancy.
Yoga in back pain
Practicing yoga not only helps relieve the pain, but also release the tension of the muscles of the back, and also reduce inflammation. Just 5 minutes a day to devote to exercise, and soon you will see results.
Prevention of back pain
- Use a comfortable bed with a flexible and a rigid mattress.
- Try to maintain the correct posture while walking.
- Maintain proper posture at your desk, when working with a computer. Please take it to the forearm while working from anywhere on the weight, and completely lies on the table. In the long-term work, use a chair with a backrest, headrest and armrests for rest and relaxation.
- Avoid a long stay in one position (at a computer, driving a car). Try to as possible, every half an hour stretch, stretch, move.
- During a long stay in a standing position find support for your back, hands or head (e.g., lean back against the vertical surface in the subway train).
- If You wear shoes with high heels, remember that walk into it without a break for more than 2 hours at a time.
- Avoid sharp bends and předklonů hull, always look for a foothold for committing similar actions.
- If it is necessary to lift something from the floor must be squat, but not bend.
- Do not lift and do not put the weights, carried them before you, avoid jerks and try to keep the back boner.
- Strengthen the back muscles using therapeutic physical training, swimming, exercise in the gym.
- Maintain normal body weight